Benign Tumors is the tumor arising from the skin or mucous membrane. They are non-cancerous type. Some most common benign tumor are;
Lipoma - it is a tumor arising from the fat cells. They can be single or multiple in number, painless swellings, soft and move on palpating. Edge slips under the palpating finger, this is the characteristic feature of lipoma. When it grows on the nerves, it may become painful. Excision of the lipoma is done by incising the skin and squeezing out the lipoma out.
Neurofibroma - it arises from the connective tissues of the nerve sheath. They are firm in consistency with smooth surface with round border. It produces a fusiform swelling in the direction of the nerve fibers. Symptoms include tingling, numbness in the region of the tumor. Treatment for neurofibroma includes excision.
Von Recklinghausen’s Disease - this is an autosomal dominant disorder and a type of neurofibroma. The whole body has cutaneous nodules of varying sizes. They are more soft and non-painful. The coffee brown (cafe-au-lait spots) pigmentation is the characteristic of this condition. Treatment for Von Recklinghausen’s disease would be very difficult, as there are numerous nodules. Excision can be attempted with plastic surgery repair.
These are the cancerous tumors arising from the skin. Among all the skin tumors, 70% are basal cell carcinomas, 20 % are squamous cell carcinomas and 5% are melanocarcinomas. Causes of tumors are chronic tobacco, alcohol, ionizing radiation, UV radiations, dietary factors, chemicals, viral factors such as HPV virus, familial and genetic causes, racial and geographic causes, environmental causes and pre malignant lesions. Some of the most common malignant tumors are
Basal Cell Carcinoma - it is a slow growing tumor, which is presented like an ulcer. Lesions are commonly seen on face. There is a never healing ulcer with healing and scabbing and again breaking to form the ulcer. The base of the ulcer is deep and are attached to the muscles. They are painless, firm nodule, raised, beaded edge and bleeds on touch. It spreads by local penetration into the deeper underlying tissues like bone, cartilage and eyeball. Treatment includes radiation along with excision cures the case. Excision is done when the lesions are close to eye, adherent to cartilage or bone. A procedure called wide excision is done where the growth is removed with at least 1cm of the healthy margin and at the depth also.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma - it is the second most common cancerous tumor. It is seen in males. They are ulcerative or cauliflower-like lesions. They are hard, immobile tumors, in rare cases can be moved along with the underlying tissues. It is spread by local penetration method involving the deeper structures and also lymphatic spread is the chief spread involving the regional lymph nodes. Treatments for squamous cell carcinoma, If the tumors are localised and at the starting stage, wide excision is done. It involves the removal of the growth along with 2cm of normal healthy tissue from the hard edge of the tumor. Excision is also done when the lesions are small, superficial and involved local area only.