General Surgery

Hernia Surgery

Hernia surgery is defined as the intrusion of hernia back into the organs by various methods. There are more than 10 million cases diagnosed every year.

What is Hernia?

It is a condition, where there is abnormal protrusion of viscus or the part of it through the weak point in the body. Hernia may be complete or incomplete depending upon the individual and body conditions. There are different kinds of hernia such as Inguinal hernia, Umbilical hernia, Femoral hernia, Hiatus hernia, Incisional hernia, Epigastric hernia and some rare conditions such as Interparietal hernia, Spigelian hernia, Lumbar hernia, sliding hernia and Obturator hernia.

Causes of Hernia

The causes for hernia differ from each other but main causes are weak muscle tone, chronic diseases, heavy weight lifting, frequent operations, occupational hazards and lifestyle factors such as obesity and smoking.

Symptoms of Hernia

Symptoms depend upon the site of hernia. Common symptoms are pain and tenderness at the herniated site, dragging pain at the site, swelling or bulge of the skin, on coughing the bulge increases and sometimes they are non-painful.

Diagnosis

Usually the condition is self-diagnosable, but the other tests involves detailed medical and lifestyle history, X-ray and ultrasonography.

Treatment

Hernia’s are to be corrected by surgical procedures only. As the hernia surgery depends on the site, the surgical procedure also differs. Some of the common hernia and its surgical procedures are

Inguinal Hernia

It is the hernia of the walls of the deep inguinal ring. It occurs in males.

Herniotomy - In this, the removal of the protruded sac alone is done. This is conducted in children up to 14-16 years of age. No further repair is required here.

Herniorrhaphy - Along with herniotomy, a special procedure called as Bassini’s Herniorrhaphy is used here. In this the stretched inguinal ring is repaired and narrowed and spermatic cord displacement is done.

Hernioplasty - In this method, the strengthening of the walls of the inguinal canal is done by using a Prolene mesh or Marlex mesh. Here the protruded contents are pushed back and mesh is applied.

Prolene Darning - In this method, the suturing of the tissues, after the intrusion of contents with crisscross pattern by using prolene suture material is done.

Kuntz Operation - In this method, the spermatic cord is divided and removed with the testis and the ring is permanently closed and hernia never occurs. This is done in recurrent hernia cases.

Femoral Hernia

This type of hernia, commonly occurs in infant, children and older adults. Mayo’s repair method - Where the incision is made below umbilicus, reduction of the contents are done and sac is removed. Here double mesh layer is used to prevent the recurrence.

Umbilical Hernia

Hernia’s are to be corrected by surgical procedures only. As the hernia surgery depends on the site, the surgical procedure also differs. Some of the common hernia and its surgical procedures are

Incisional Hernia

Incisional hernia occurs at the operated site. This type of hernia is more in females. Keel Operation of Rodney-Maingot - In this the scar is opened and the contents are pushed back into abdomen without opening the peritoneum. Any hernia can lead to the complications such as strangulation and obstruction of the parts, which can lead to the death of the tissues leading to gangrene. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatments is necessary.


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