Plastic surgery or the reconstructive surgeries are widely being used since the age of Sushrutha in the 6th century BC in India. Sushrutha is also called Father of Plastic Surgery.
Reconstructive Surgery - It aims for the correction and reconstructing the damaged part of body to restore its functions. The most common reconstructive plastic surgeries are tumor removal, laceration repair, scar repair, hand surgery, breast reconstruction after breast removal in breast cancer, contracture surgery (tightening of skin in burn survivors), creating new ear when it is congenitally absent or lost in burns and breast reduction plasty in abnormal male breasts (Gynecomastia).
Cosmetic or Aesthetic Surgery - It aims at correction and reconstructing the parts mainly for the good appearance. Plastic surgery in general involves the whole body but to simplify and to enhance its effectiveness.
Aesthetic Surgery - it focuses mainly on the overall appearance of the face and body parts. Burn Surgery - this is done for the burn survivors by reconstructing the skin and parts after the burn wound healing.
Craniofacial Surgery - it involves the treatment of congenital anomalies of head and face in both children and adults. Children conditions include correction of cleft lip and palate and pediatric fractures. In adults it includes the correction of jaw in cases of oral cancer (commando operation).
Hand Surgery - it includes the correction of the injuries or congenital anomalies of the hands and wrist. They help in replacing the amputated limbs.
Microsurgery - it deals with the addition of the missed or damaged tissues as in breast reconstruction after the breast cancer.
Pediatric Plastic Surgery - this includes the correction of birth defects of the whole body like correction of cobweb hands and feet, cleft lip and palate.
As plastic surgery mainly aims at reconstruction with possible good appearance skin grafting method is widely used. (Skin grafting means the surgery involving the transplantation of the skin, the cut tissue is called as Skin Graft). Even free flaps (tissue transfer) of skin, muscle, bone, fat or any combination is moved from site to another along with blood supply connection.
For the successful reconstruction, grafting can be obtained from self, called as auto grafts, or allografts from the other person, or xenografts where the graft is obtained from the other species, not from humans.
In cosmetic surgery, the most common procedures increased in recent years are breast augmentation (breast implantation with silicone gel prosthetics in small breasts), liposuction (reduction of fatty deposits by traditional suction techniques or ultrasonic energy for fat removal), breast reduction, abdominoplasty (tummy tuck), blepharoplasty (reshaping the upper or lower eyelids), phalloplasty (reconstruction of penis for cosmetic purposes), rhinoplasty (reshaping of nose), rhytidectomy or face lift (removal of wrinkles and signs of aging from face), neck lift, cheek augmentation ( implants to the cheek), laser skin skin rejuvenation, browplasty (elevates eyebrows for smooth forehead skin) and many more.