Hysterosalphingography is a technique used in the investigation of abnormal structural changes and the patency of the fallopian tubes and the uterus within the female reproductive system. Fallopian tubes also called as salpinges (plural form of salpinx) are the two tubes which act as the connecting tubes between the ovaries and the uterus on either sides. It helps in the movement of the eggs from the ovaries to the uterus and also helps the sperms to reach the egg. Usually 1/3rd of the fertilization of the fetus takes place in the fallopian tubes only. Any blockage or growths within the uterus or fallopian tubes can result in the female infertility which can be diagnosed in this method.


In this procedure, a dye is injected in to the fallopian tubes, which are radio-opaque in nature to evaluate the tubal lesions, tubal adhesions, tubal ruptures, any growths or tissues in the uterus and tubal patency through the fluoroscopy.

Indications of HSG

  • It is helpful in assessing the tubal patency in case of infertility or after the surgical tubectomy.
  • It also helps in the detection of the misplaced or movement of IUD (Intrauterine devices, which are inserted in vagina for family planning) within the uterus or outside the uterus.
  • It also helps in detection of the cervical incompetence.
  • It helps to rule out the uterine malformations like septate uterus or unicornuate uterus or birconuate uterus.
  • It helps in the diagnosis of the secondary abdominal pregnancy.
  • It also helps in the diagnosis of the uterine growths or polyps or adhesions within the female reproductive system.

Advantages of HSG

HSG has proved beneficial over other traditional methods of assessing and evaluating the female causes of infertility like hormonal assay, ultrasonography and Dilatation and Insufflation methods (D and I ) in the following ways

  • Better visualization of the lumen of the tubes.
  • In case of any intraluminal or intratubular small adhesions, then HSG helps in better flushing of the tubes thereby increasing the chances of pregnancy within 3-4 months.
  • Increased accuracy of the reports and are least to subjective errors.
  • Identification of uterine abnormal cavity.
  • The risks of embolism or pelvic irritation is comparatively less.

Contraindications of HSG

Although it is the minimal invasive procedure with minimal side effects it also has some contradictions, where HSG cannot be performed in every female. Such contradictions are pelvic infections, pelvic inflammatory diseases, women with hydrosalpinges and women who are very sensitive to pelvic examination.